volcanoes from space


Santorini, Greece
This ASTER image of Santorini was acquired on November 21, 2000 and covers an area of 18 by 18 km.

Krakatau, Indonesia
This detailed image of the young volcano was taken by the Ikonos satellite on June 11, 2005. The volcano’s circular crater sits southwest of the center of the island and is surrounded by fresh lava flows and ash. The black shores of the island are scalloped where the flows have solidified in the ocean.

Unibas, Peru
This oblique image (looking at an angle) from the International Space Station (ISS) captures an ash cloud first observed on satellite imagery at 11:00 GMT on August 14, 2006. An ISS astronaut took this picture one hour and 45 minutes later.

Gunung Bromo, Indonesia
This image shows most of the Sandsea Caldera, along with Gunung Bromo and the older volcanoes on the caldera floor. A small plume of steam is visible rising out of Mt. Bromo. Space Imaging’s IKONOS satellite, capable of 4-meter per-pixel color imagery, and 1-meter per-pixel
resolution panchromatic imagery, acquired the data on July 8, 2001.

Mt. Etna , Italy

Astronaut photograph ISS013-E-62714 was acquired August 2, 2006, with a Kodak 760C digital camera using an 800 mm lens, and is provided by the ISS Crew Earth Observations experiment and the Image Science & Analysis Group, Johnson Space Center

Pico de Teide and Pico Viejo , Tenerife:
Astronaut photograph ISS013-E-23272 was acquired June 8, 2006, with a Kodak 760C digital camera using an 800 mm lens, and is provided by the ISS Crew Earth Observations experiment and the Image Science & Analysis Group, Johnson Space Center.

Vesuvius, Italy
Quickbird satellite on July 12, 2002

Mt. St.Helens , USA


tsumani in Java 17-07-2006

On July 17th, 2006 a tsunami hit southwest-Java and killed more than 550 people. The tsunami was the result of a sea quake in the Indian ocean with a force of 7.0 on the scale of Richter. The coast of the tourist village Pangandaran was struck hardest by the waves.
This are the images I revieved from a friend in Java, showing the flooding.

POINT LOBOS (California, USA)

'Carmelo Formation. Conglomarate with granodiorite pebbles of vulcanic origin

Carmelo Formation (Paleocene: 60,000,000 years old)

Around 60 million years ago, the Salinian block subsided and ocean waters filled the granodiorite canyons. On land, ancient rivers carried lava from distant volcanoes down to the shoreline, and along the way scoured it into rounded pebbles and cobblestone-sized rocks. Over time, these rocks and layers of sand were deposited on the submarine canyon walls by underwater landslides and eventually cemented into a conglomerate called the Carmelo Formation. For many people, the Carmelo Formation is the most interesting type of rock at Point Lobos. It is softer than the granodiorite and is easily seen along the south shore of the reserve, where it has been eroded by ocean waves to form a photogenic series of coves, crevices and shelves.

The Carmelo formation is composed of thousands of layers of conglomerate, sand stone, and mudstone which the turbidity currents have deposited. The mudstone was deposited as marine mud. Most pebbles in the conglomerate are of volcanic origin. Conglomerate and sandstone are shades of brown, with concentrations of reddish brown iron oxide common in the sandstone. Mudstone is gray.

sandstone formations

source: http://pt-lobos.parks.state.ca.us/ (Jeff Thomson)
fotos: Gertjan Laurenssen



By performing traditional dances and offering food, the people around Mount Merapi volcano try to avert an eruption.


Apr 06
End of Apr 2006.
The geological world is looking at Indonesia, where the Merapi volcano is becomming more and more active (level 4) A major eruption is to be expected. Gunung Merapi is located in the southern area of central Java, overlooking the ancient royal city of Yogyakarta, is the most active volcano in Indonesia. Merapi has been witnessing small eruptions every two or three years, bigger ones every 10-15 years, and very large ones every 50-60 years.

It is now Mai 3th 2006. The volcano dome is still growing threathning the villages below. Recent measurements show that the dome has grown in volume to 2.4 million cubic meters. If the dome collapses, pyroclastic flow might rush down the slopes of the volcano. The dome has grown in height by 10 meters in 3 days.

Mai 4th. Merapi starts making rumbling sounds and people are urged to leave the area around the volcano. Former President Megawati Soekarnoputri has said Mt Merapi might erupt before May 6, 2006 and therefore residents living on its slopes should immediately be evacuated to safer locations. " This is not a prediction, but a possibility.

Mai 4th. The first lava flow started at 2 a.m. local time although the local customary guardian of the volcano, an elderly man named Marijan, officially appointed by the royal house of Yogyakarta, had said that there are no signs yet of an immediate eruption.

Merapi has become increasingly critical following the appearace a new crater and increasing magma pressures on its top.

At least 25 multiphase tremors and seven lava fallouts were recorded. Meanwhile, more magma is expected to escape from the beneath of the volcano. Earlier, on Wednesday, some 197 multiphase tremors, two tectonic earthquakes, a shallow volcanic earthquake and 29 fallouts were recorded.

May Thursday 11th , Merapi is spewing molten lava as far as 1,500 metres from its crater. Vice President Jusuf Kalla , urge an immediate evacuation of people living on the slopes. Hotel owners , received bookings from volcano hunters form over the world. I received an E-mail from Gomagma today whether I would join their Merapi trip, but I've already vacations planned.

May 13 Indonesian scientists have raised the alert status (level5) for the Mount Merapi volcano to its highest level, prompting mandatory evacuation of residents living near the mountain. Merapi, has spewed pyroclastic flows since 8:30 a.m. local time today.

15 May 2006 - Clouds of deadly ash, rock fragments and hot gas surged down Mount Merapi's slopes Monday as activity intensified to the highest level since the volcano rumbled back to life weeks ago. One eruption sent an avalanche of debris and ash rolling more than 2 miles down the mountain's western flank.

16 may 2006, Ash rain from the volcano has extended 13 kilometers (8 miles) north of the volcano, said Triani, an officer on duty at the Volcano Development and Research Center in Yogyakarta city. The lava dome has reached a height of about 85 meters (280 feet) over the past two weeks, Triani said. Lava dome collapses can set off pyroclastic flows, or the superheated flow of molten rock, ash and gases.

YOGYAKARTA, 07 June 2006 - The 9,700-foot (2,900-meter) volcano on the Indonesian island of Java has been sporadically spewing clouds of toxic gas and lava for several weeks. Experts believe a major eruption could come at any time. Villagers were being trucked away from the foot of the mountain to temporary shelters.

"Of course it is dangerous. But we don't know for sure whether the lava dome will collapse," Subandriyo, a government volcanologist who uses only one name, told the Associated Press. Officials said a cloud of gas from Merapi stretched for 2.4 miles (4 kilometers), and piles of lava were pushed up to 4 miles (7 kilometers) from the crater, according to the news reports.

Activity in the region has increased since a magnitude 6.3 earthquake struck about 20 miles (30 kilometers) to the south of the volcano on May 27. The earthquake killed more than 5,800 people. Scientists believe the earthquake may have contributed to the increased activity at the volcano.

"I don't think that's unreasonable. The volcano is an unstable pile of rock. It's fragile," said Stanley Williams, a volcanologist at Arizona State University in Tempe who has studied Merapi. "I would be surprised if [the earthquake] didn't literally shake the mountain," he added. A major eruption of Merapi could strain quake-relief efforts.


Studying volcanoes of Italy

In the fall of 2003 I joined a study trip to the active volcanoes of Italy organized by geoReizen.
For more information see my blog: volcano-2.blogspot.com

classification of volcanic rocks

For information on classification and recognition of volcanic rocks see by blog :

volcano travel


There only a limited number of organisations that organise geological study trips to volcanoes.
click on the logo's for more information